Paraphrasing Strategy/RAP


Content
Reading and reading comprehension
This strategy can improve understanding of expository materials by getting the main ideas through paraphrasing.

Grade Level
This technique is appropriate to use with grade levels 3-12.

Curriculum Standards
For seventh grade this strategy uses the following CSOs:
RLA.O.7.1.10: use examples, and details in practical texts to make inferences and logical predictions about outcomes of procedures in such texts.
RLA.O.7.1.7: summarize explicit and implied information from literary and informational texts to recognize the relationships among the facts, ideas, events and concepts (e.g., names, dates, events, organizational patterns, graphical representations as found in photographs, captions, maps, tables or timelines, textual features including table of contents, headings or side bars).

Description of Practices
The paraphrasing strategy helps students recall the main ideas and specific facts of materials they read. There are three steps for teaching this strategy:

1. Read a paragraph

2. Ask yourself, "What were the main ideas and details of this paragraph?"

3. Put the main idea and details in your own words.

The acronym for these steps is RAP

Paraphrasing is like rapping or talking to yourself!



Implementation Considerations
This strategy could be used in a self-contained setting where the teacher works one-on-one with a student. Here the teacher would have the student read a paragraph, tell the teacher the main ideas, and then put them in their own words. This could also be done with a partner in a whole group setting. Putting the students in a classroom with a partner and asking them to do this strategy together could really benefit students.
This strategy could basically be used in any setting as long as the student has a partner, teacher, or classmates to "RAP" to!

Example
This is an example of how you could use the RAP strategy in your future classroom. There is a lesson plan provided, a chart for the steps of paraphrasing, and questions to ask when looking for the main idea.
http://www.elemedu.ccs.k12.nc.us/Task_Analyses/English_Language_Arts/Fifth%20Grade/5-2009/Attachments-2009/Attachment%20E-Paraphrasing%20Strategy.pdf

Citation
This information was found at:
https://www.msu.edu/course/cep/886/Reading%20Comprehension/9Learn_Serv_Proj_Paraphrasing.html
Source:
Bos, C.S. & Vaughn, S. (2002). Strategies for teaching students with learning and behavior problems. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.